Utopia & Expectation

Utopian Socialism: (Ref:): https://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1880/soc-utop/ch01.htm)

Engles, F. (1880) The Development of Utopian Socialism


Marx & Engles: Socialist and Communist Literature

Despite Marx and Engles defining their own socialism in opposition originally to Utopian Socialism they began to describe how people would live if everyone adheared to the socialist ethic. According to Utopians and Marxists, like Fourier and Owen, Utopian Socialism inspires the oppressed to struggle and sacrifice in order to peruse a better life; gives clear meaning to the aim of socialism and demonstrates how socialism is ethical without exploiting everyone despite Marx original theoretical approach.

Engles (1880) points out that extreme revolutionists did not recognise any external authority of any kind whatsoever, reason became the sole measure of everything. Considering the identity of the UK, considered no more than the ‘idealised kingdom of the Bourgeoisie’ (Engles), which reduces equality. Revolutionary uprising of class developed within Serbia however it is interesting to consider the future for Serbia and how the culture maintains is sole independent collaboration with mainly countries that were once main allies during political conflict, eg Russia.

http://eucenter.wisc.edu/Media%20System.pdf – Curran media system and public knowledge

mapping of digital media http://www.fpn.bg.ac.rs/wp-content/uploads/mapping-digital-media-serbia-20111215.pdf

Digital media and Public Expectation:

Public expectation has altered in Serbia considerably, for a country that is thought of to be under developed in terms of digital technology and communication, digital media has had a huge impact upon the way in which journalists and newsrooms operate. An example of this is by reporter Zorić (2010) who ensures her digital camera and at times mobile phone is ready to go live at any time, in case of an emergency. An interview conducted by Surculija with Zorić (2010) engaged with her understanding of security in Serbia, especially when considering public relations and identity. Zorić admitted that she no longer needs to ‘worry about people’s security or co ordinate with a camera crew’ because of her ability to advance mobile technology and adapt. Zorić   therefore understands her audience’s specific needs and requirements and their desires when it comes to broadcasting types of information, despite her own admission that she lacks knowledge and experience ‘to get a clear picture or a proper frame every time’, though claims to be available 24/7. However, it is interesting to consider that Surculija does not include any male reporters and only focuses on the positionality of the female researcher and her apparent self assured security with mobile technology rather than being flanked by camera men. It is also noted that sensitive issues in Serbia include religious; sexual minorities and abuse of women and children that appears to be traditionally diverse taboo topics.

Impatience begun to materialise during a workshop in 2010, according to Surculija, lead writer of ‘Mapping Digital Media’. News that was broadcasted until 5pm was becoming too eagerly anticipated by a global audience who were going online to gain the information instead of waiting, convenience of digital technology was clearly a priority. The editor in chief of a local radio station in Serbia, reportedly feared to publish any news upon the internet before the 5pm broadcast because of the public’s preference of reading it in ‘real time’. The following month after this workshop, according to Surculija (2010), the radio station decided to alternatively change and publish information as it arrived, which actively developed more listeners.

Utopia & Expectation

The state of media in Contemporary Serbia

Case studies on B92

In 2001, after two BBC documentaries “A cry from the grave” and “Abduction” broadcasted in Serbia by B92. Serbs finally believed they have done the past war crimes. This can definitely can see how powerful media is. This research will also focus looking on Foucault’s works on power. http://www.aimpress.ch/dyn/trae/archive/data/200107/10723-002-trae-beo.htm

The current and previous government in Serbia spent years and want to erase the “butcher” image for the war crime. Radojkovic (2009) has stated, ‘Civil society media are not growing in Serbia’. Before examining the state of media in contemporary Serbia, we can trace back the history of Yugoslavia. Yugoslavia was a republic by six related Slavic groups. Among those places, Serbia was the most powerful group. Due to the ethno-nationalism, the six Slavic groups announced disintegrations one after another, therefore, wars outbreaked afterwards.


1991 Serbia left the Yogoslavia republic

1995 Srebrenica Massacre

– killed more than 8000 mainly men & boys, it was portrayed as the worst massacre in Europe after Second World War II

1995 Dayton Agreement

  • agreement for peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina

1998 Kosovo Serbs War

1999 Kosovo conflicts

In, 1999, North Altantic Treaty Organization (NATO) decided to bomb Serbia to stop the ethnic genocide. Ironically, during 78-day genocide, it also killed a lot of innocent Serbian. One of the bombs killed 16 Serbs in a television station. Afterwards, a monument was placed next to the TV station and was craved a question mark on the monument. It gave a strongly echo from the international societies that questioned why impose collective punishment to them? Is it the whole nation citizens have their guilt? Therefore, how to resolve the “Butcher” image in Serbia? I focus looking on the role of media.

The journalists avoid reporting some government bad news because they are afraid losing their jobs. In 2014, some well-known TV shows were taken off the air due to discuss politics and economy. Radisic (2014) has indicated, “The pressure became more evident to the public and it finally began to affect the public directly, with some social media users being brought in for police questioning and sometimes detained for tweeting critically about the government”.


Serbian Bloggers Censored for Criticizing Flood Relief Efforts

One of the well-known show named “Impression of the Week” which is hosted by journalist Olja Beckovic for over 20 years. Beckovic has begun openly speaking about receiving telephone calls from Prime Minister Aleksandar Vucic, pressuring her to change guests and topics on her show.


Serbia: B92 to drop critical talk show amidst political pressure

The state of media in Contemporary Serbia